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A basic guide for poker online games

 

Are you looking for a guide where you can learn the basics of poker online games? This is the end of your search as this guide covers everything a beginner or anyone interested should know. This guide is even useful for those who have played a few pokers games as well. You should consider yourself beginner until you don’t become a consistent player here. The poker world is dynamic yet static because you never know who your opponent is. The rules and follow-up of the game are however constant but the new games differ slightly in rules. This makes it a bit challenging for players especially the new ones.

But don’t worries we have cover basic game’s format and structure including the right etiquettes at the game tables. Yes, you have to follow them to show that you are professional players. The opponent should not realize that you are a newbie. Learn poker online tips and begin playing.

Introduction to poker

The basics include how many players can play poker, about the cards, objective, hand rankings, blinds, and antes, betting options and its structure.

Number of players

There is no fixed number of players for a game. In cash games, there are 2-10 players on each table whereas tournaments can have thousands of players. There is a format according to which the number of players varies on each table. Full ring games have 9-10 players per table. There are only 6 players on table in shorthand games. Only two players can play head up games per table.

The cards

The standard deck size that is 52 cards are available in poker online games. An individual player has hole cards with which he deals. However, some games involve the use of community cards. A player has to use both hole and community cards to get a strong hand.

The objective

Winning is the only objective of a poker online player. Every pot has chips for which player has to make bets. If the player has a strong hand then he wins and gets the pot size money.

Hand rankings

Different hands have different rankings. The high card has a top ranking. The straight hand is one which five consecutive cards and a flush are a combination of five similar cards. A pair is one where a player has two cards having the same rank.

Blinds and Antes

Few poker games include either blinds or antes whereas others include both. For example- a player who sits left to the dealer places small blinds. One who is the second most players from this player place big blinds. All players can place the ante. The stakes of a game determine the size of these blinds and antes.

Betting options

Every player has 5 betting options. They can either check, bet, call, raise or fold. Check means no bet but the player is active and calls future bets. Bet is when a player adds desired chips for a pot. Match the previous bet and add an equal amount to a pot, this is “call.” You can increase the size of the bet by using raise betting option. Here, you have to bet for more than the bet of another player. Add that additional amount to the pot. When you want to surrender use the Fold option and discard the cards.

Betting structure

The betting structure of a game decides how much amount a player can bet. Poker online games have five structures for betting. However, every structure has different rules.

  • Fixed limit- in such game, you can bet only up to a fixed amount and same applies to rise.
  • No limit- you can bet any amount
  • Pot limit- you can bet or raise to the maximum limit of the pot size
  • Spread limit-spread is a pre-determined limit in such game above which you cannot place the bet or raise.
  • Cap limit- here is a cap between which a player has to place a bet or raise.

So, these were the basics that every poker online game follows. Before you get into the poker world, know the three key facts of the game.

Key facts

You are playing against https://www.pokerbo.online players which are not the case with sports betting games. Here you don’t directly compete to other players but in poker games, you and your opponent are playing against each other.

The game is all about skill and chance. And at last, situs poker online is a risky place. You are gambling so it’s obvious that you have to put money at risk.

Remember these facts and stick to the basics.

 

 

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How to Get the Most Out of the Slots

Slot machines have been a hit with both casinos and casino game players for decades.  918kiss They give players a chance to win way more than they wager, which isn’t the case with a table game like Blackjack. They are also easy to play. Simply wager a coin on a payline, and spin the reels. If they stop on a winning combination, you win. If they don’t, you lose.

Part of the appeal of the slots is that there is no way to make the wrong “play”. Instead, they are an entertaining way to pass some time in the casino.

While slot machine payouts are set in favor of the house, there are several ways players can get more out of their time at the machines. Here are a few techniques that you can use next time you sit down to play the slots.

Play the loosest slot machine you can find. That almost goes without saying. Some of the slots in a casino have their payout percentages marked. Many online casinos have their slot machine payout records published on their sites, although to be fair these are the percentages for all of the slots combined, not a particular machine.

If you can find a machine that will payout 97%, which means that for every $100 wagered on spins, $97 will be returned to the player in the form of winners, you’ve found a good machine. The higher the payout percentage, the more winners (in terms of credits). And more winners can translate into more time at the machines enjoying yourself.

Play lower denominations. It’s easier to go through your $100 playing a dollar a spin than a quarter a spin. By playing lower denominations, you can extend your time at the machines.

Progressive Slots – if your goal is to spend the afternoon at the slot machines without breaking your bankroll, avoid playing progressive slot games. They need to take in more coins without paying out so they can award the super-large jackpots to players. This means less winning combinations will be coming your way on a regular basis.

On the other hand, if you want to “Go big or go home”, the progressive machines are a good place to seat yourself. When you win on a progressive machine, you are likely to win larger amounts. Sometimes, very large amounts. These jackpot machines are the ones that award life-changing winnings to those lucky few that hit it big.

Video Slots – pay attention to the credits more than the number of winning combinations that come your way. Hitting winners is always fun, but on a video slot, with so many paylines, it isn’t difficult to hit a winning combination that doesn’t even pay for the cost of the spin. In fact, you can hit winner after winner on these games, and end up losing money.

Take Advantage of the Player Rewards – whether you are playing at an online casino, or one of the land-based casinos, you should be playing with a player’s card. Make sure the casino knows that you’re spending time playing their games, and they will reward you. This bit of hospitality helps add some extra playing time, or some extra chances to hit it big to your experience.

 

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Gambling in Online Sports Betting Sites

Although gambling online has become more popular, there are still a number sports betting enthusiasts that are afraid to take the plunge online. It would seem that the issues on security and the ignorance about how online betting works are the major stumbling blocks for people who still don’t want to play online. However, once people overcome these two hurdles, they realize the convenience, safety and reliability of cyber betting. If you are a newbie to online betting, casinos and other related activities, you might want to follow these tips to ensure that your experience will be fun and safe right the first time.

One of the first things that you should do is check the website you want to use in online 먹튀검증 gambling. Check if the website has the appropriate security verifications, encryptions and other measures that will protect both the site and the players. A good online betting operator would know that website security is important for business, so it would surely put in place the most effective security features. It is also a good idea to surf the Internet and see some reviews and feedbacks provided by other players about the website you want to use. Join legitimate forums on sports betting and you will surely find out more about what betting stations are trustworthy and those that are not. Also, if you have friends who are into playing cards, betting on sports and participating in such online activities, you can always ask for their suggestions or recommendations.

It is also a good idea to be prudent when joining or participating in an online betting station for the very first time. Make sure you check the terms and conditions of the site before you start to gamble or bet. It would also be advisable to manage your betting money. Putting everything on the table within the first few bets you make at online gambling sites may not be a good idea, especially if you do not yet have any experience with the website.

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Publish Your Work Online For Free

Are you a first time author who thinks of publishing some of his or her books online for free?

Even as an expert in online writing and publishing, are you confused or you need more answers to whether you should continue publishing free contents online? If yes, then this article is for you. . . I’d suggest you take time to read this article from beginning to the end.

Submitting or posting your very own book online for people to read freely has both นิยายแปล advantages and disadvantages. Let’s begin with the advantages. On advantages, the importance is that for a first time author or an expert, writing and publishing book online for free is a great idea. To begin with, getting your name out there for recognition, getting free reviews and critiques, especially a positive comments will put a glimpse on your face, they let you know what’s working well and what’s not in your book, this may be an encouragement to for you to publish more freely. It simply helps to start building a reliable audience who value your writing. This is also a “platform” to set up, to build followers, and you’ve without a doubt proved that there’s a marketplace for your very own writings or books, knowing that can it will enable you to earn more when you publish them, it will help in achieving success in online writing and publishing through gaining invitation speaking engagement, having book deals and more. All this seems effective it might give you lasting advantages and profits but there’s often the chance you’ll face the negative or disadvantages below;

Here are major disadvantages you will meet as writer who chooses to give away some of his or her writing online, that you might possibly damage upcoming books sales, receive negative feedbacks or reviews even on your best writing. It is also horribly upsetting when you publish some of your books online, maybe to your web blog, then you find out that your audience or readers are few. This might give some powerful publishing site owner’s who have seen your good writings the chance to take advantage of you, by trying to publish your book as an eBook to give you percentage of proceeds (little peanuts) or even give it away free as an incentive to those who subscribe to their newsletter, What will then happen to copyright/intellectual right of the eBook? Some writers, might grab the idea like yours and goes on to publish their novel before you do, will this not affect your sale or will he or she no claim the rights.

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Do Natural Weight Loss Pills Really Work?

If you asked me what was the best way to lose weight, I would tell you: “The natural way!” Go ahead, ask any expert or dietitian and you can be sure that they will tell you the same thing. Why is that? Because natural way is always the safest way, and safety is one of the most important factors when it comes to weight loss.

So, what does “natural way” mean anyways? It means using natural and organic weight loss supplements to help you lose weight. Keep in mind that this might not what is the 5 second water hack be the fastest way to lose weight, but hey, what’s the hurry? If you want to lose some serious weight, it will take some time and effort. It won’t come overnight, but it can be done!

Today you can find the whole industry of so called “natural” or “herbal” weight loss pills. So many companies today put words “natural” or “herbal” besides their product names, but they don’t actually provide any valid scientific data that will prove their claims. It is as if words “natural” and “herbal” became synonyms for the real quality nowadays.

But does word “natural” or “herbal” automatically means “good quality”? Well, if you ask me, then I don’t think so. Don’t fall for this silly soundbites! You need to know that today’s weight loss market is huge and companies will tell you anything that will sound persuasive and that might make you buy their product.

Instead of blindly trusting those companies, I suggest you something more meaningful: go and seek valid scientific data that can back up all those claims about natural weight loss pills. Be smart and educate yourself. If you cannot find anything that can medically back up a weight loss pill’s claims, then avoid that diet pill and move on to next one. What kind of scientific proof should you look for? The best thing to look for is certainly a clinical study for the natural weight loss pill. The study should clearly outline the goal of the study, participants, date of study and final results.

For the natural weight loss pill to be considered effective, it MUST have answers to following questions:

 

  • How does it work?
  • Is it medically backed?
  • Are there any real testimonials?
  • Are there any side effects?

 

Always look for answers to those questions if you want to find natural weight loss pill that works.

As for our main question: Do natural weight loss pills work? Yes they do, but it’s all about finding the right weight loss pill that is actually natural! Unfortunately, I need to tell you this: there are not many natural weight loss pills that work. So, what you need is a weight loss pill that both works AND is clinically proven. That means you won’t waste your time and money on fraudulent products.

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Are Online Loan Modification Services Worthwhile?

Everyone is complaining about the world, about the financial situation, about how they can’t pay the mortgage. But there are solutions to all of these problems, and many of these solutions can save you some money, which in turn gives you more money for other expenses. One of these solutions is the loan modification. The mortgage loan modification is a type of loan that modifies your existing mortgage thereby lowering your monthly bills. This makes your home more affordable. The only issue is that there are some qualifications that need to be met to be able to get a mortgage modification. Xem Tai Day

Currently under the Obama Administration there is $75 billion offered to keep homeowners in their homes. The first type of modification loan is offered to people who have so far, been able to keep up with their monthly payments, but who have suffered a de-valuation of their home. The government offers aid to these people so they can remain in their home and this is called an affordable refinance program. To qualify for such a loan, you have to live in the house, and your loan needs to be lower than $730, 000 and you need to have bought the house before January of 2009. But besides these qualifications you must show a real financial need in applying for the loan modification, and you will have to show documents to support that need. Once you have met these requirements you will need to fill out an application and put all the necessary documents together.

You should also write a hardship letter that explains your financial issues and the reason these issues have come up. The best thing you can do is seek the help of a company that specializes in loan modification applications. This way the process will be faster, and the chances of you getting approved will be higher.

Final Tip: By researching and comparing the best mortgage loan modification companies  in the market, you will be able to determine the one that meets your specific financial situation, plus the cheaper and quicker options available. However, it is advisable going with a trusted and reputable stop foreclosure specialist before making any decision, this way you will save time through specialized advise coming from a seasoned loan mods advisor and money by getting better results in a shorter span of time. Meaning getting your house out of risk as soon as possible.

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New Year, New Decade, New Staffing Software: Part 2

Welcome back to Part 2 of “New Year, New Decade, New Staffing Software!” If you are reading this article, you may have caught Part 1 which discussed how to begin your search for new staffing software. Part 2 will dive into questions not to overlook, what to avoid as you narrow down your search, and how to plan for a smooth implementation.

Questions Not to Overlook

In the beginning stages of your search, you are demoing and checking off which software’s have your “must have” items. You are looking at the overall workflow, the layout, picturing yourself using the software, and more. There are two important factors though that are often overlooked when evaluating software solutions: Security and Support.

Security

Often times security is ignored when evaluating software solutions. It is an absolute MUST to ask the software provider how they will secure your data. The biggest mistake is to assume your data is safe. Never assume! Software providers invest in different tiers of security. You are putting your staffing company at risk of a breach if you don’t ask these key questions before signing on the dotted line:

  • Where is your data stored and what Tier Data Center is it stored in? Tier 3 and 4 data centers provide the highest security.
  • Is the data stored in multiple Data Centers?
  • Who manages the Data Center and how often is your data backed up?
  • Is the Data Center certified/audited?
  • What type of anti-virus/anti-malware software do they use?

If data security is a foreign language to you (as it is to most of us), I recommend doing research on Data Center’s and anti-virus/anti-malware software to help you as you are asking these questions.

Support

As with any technology solution, good customer support is critical whether you need to reach out a lot or just every once in a while. Staffing software complement’s your everyday tasks and is essential for your workflow. If you have an issue or a question, it’s important to be able to contact Support easily and hear back in a timely fashion. At the end of the day, you are looking for a partner that will be easy to work with and Support is a big component of that. Bad Support will make the whole user experience miserable. So how do you know if you are forming a good partnership?

Below are key questions to ask:

  • Is Support included in your contract?
  • How quickly do you hear a response back?
  • Do you have to log a ticket before speaking with anyone?
  • Is Support available 24/7?
  • Do you get a person or a robot when you call?
  • Is training and other resources available to help you learn the software?

What to avoid as you narrow down your search

Don’t Settle for Cheap and Avoid Hidden Costs

While everyone likes to save money, don’t settle with a solution just because it is the cheapest option. New software is a big change so you want to make sure you go with a quality product that will help your business grow. The last thing you want to do is settle for an inexpensive option and then be going through the process all over again.

The other circumstance you want to avoid is paying for hidden costs. The solution may be cheaper upfront, but are there costs you will need to pay throughout your subscription? If there are other fees you are paying during your subscription then it could all amount to the same price once all said and done.  shareit for laptop Also be cautious of any big offer promotions you are receiving. If they are giving their products and services away, while offering superior service, what’s the catch?

Choosing a Solution that Isn’t Streamlined

When choosing a new software, you want the solution to make your processes more efficient and help grow your business. Considering a solution that is both a CRM/ATS and integrates with your back office and web portals will help streamline your processes. There is no need to toggle between multiple programs. An all-in-one solution will eliminate multiple data entries, lower your risk of losing data, and help you gain access to “big picture” reports for critical business decisions. Avoid the headache and setbacks of having multiple solutions.

How do you plan for a smooth implementation?

You’ve asked all the right questions, you received references, you have been dreaming about the new software, and you signed the contract. What’s next? Planning for a smooth implementation! There are several things you want to make sure you do to allow for a smooth transition. While it may seem like the hard part is over, implementing the software is the last, but most critical step.

First, you will need to decide what data you are bringing over to the new software. Chances are you might have old/bad data that doesn’t need to be brought over. Only bring the data that you need. Before the conversion, the software company will provide you with a detailed document of what will be converted and where it will go in the new system. They will also provide you with a quote and estimated number of hours it will take to convert the data. This is the time to ask any questions you may have. You want to make sure you know exactly what is being converted and the estimated cost so there is no confusion down the line.

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How to Recognize a Good Online BMX Game?

There are a lot of online games on the Web and their number increases daily. Sometimes they are quite funny and give you the core of the entertainment which everyone is looking for, and sometimes they can be boredom and a big disappointment. To extract a good game in the “sea” of Internet games, you must start with the expectations of every player, with what he expects from the game.

There are a few expectations that are typical for each type of player. First of all, the game must be challenged enough for his category. Challenge comes when player must accomplish the task in the game, so he can move to the next level, and finally reach the end of the game as a winner. There are a lot of obstacles and other players on his way, which player must pass and that kind of impediment makes the game more challenging. Also the challenge in the game is made by time limits, stories in the game, and possibilities of the main character. Further, the expectation is quality of the games. Over time, games are developing more and more and that causes a high game quality that are all accustomed to. No one will pubg pc download  play a game with the low quality details, smashing background sound or low number of levels. Games are becoming more demanding by software and complicated by playing, so everyone expects a good 3D graphic details with the real time character reaction. These games are becoming bigger and heavier (if we look in the way of MB), so the next players expectation will be a fast Internet load and playing free of charge. This is also very important, because player expects game with the good 3D graphic details and sounds that load quickly, so he can play that game as soon as possible. Very important item is, when it comes to online games, that player usually wants to play games for free. That is the main essence of the online games!

When it comes to online BMX games, the main parameters which show whether the game is good or not are the tricks. The equation here is simple: online BMX games with the higher number of the tricks are better. Also, it is important not to ignore the quality of the tricks. The high number of the simple tricks does not make a game better then game with the equal number of the simple and hard BMX tricks. Also a very important thing is: what the place (of the BMX Park or the street) is- where you can perform these insane stunts. BMXers are not delighted if they are not surrounded by a dozen ramps, half-pipes and rails where they can enjoy doing awesome tricks and stunts. Also very important gauge for BMX games, as well as for all other online games, are graphic details of the character and environment. This is important because BMX tricks stand out in the best way and players can enjoy them in the full mode. One thing is also important with the BMX online games: player – BMX rider must feel the adrenalin pumping when he rides his bike in the game. In the other words, competition in BMX games must be provocative as more as possible, so he can beat his opponent or the time limit and do some of the craziest tricks in the same way. So that he will collect enough points to become a winner, which would make him proud.

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7 Key Tactics The Pros Use For Casinos

There are more and more online casinos available right now. These are great because they allow us to gamble when we want and wherever we want to. However, sometimes it is nice to be able to go to a real, old fashioned casino. The United States is famous for its casinos, and if you happen to be in Iowa, you may want to have a look inside one. There is nothing quite like a real casino, after all. The sounds of the slot machines, people pulling on the one armed bandits, cards shuffling, waiters and waitresses walking around clinking glasses, the smell of money and chips. Luckily, if you do find yourself in Iowa, there are plenty of places you could go to. Here is a list of some of the best casinos you will be able to find in the state.

List of Iowa Casinos (Casino, City, County)

  • Prairie Meadows, Altoona, Polk
  • Diamond Jo Casino – Worth, Northwood, Worth
  • Harrah’s Casino & Hotel, Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie
  • Ameristar, Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie
  • Horseshoe Council Bluffs, Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie
  • Terrible’s Lakeside Casino, Osceola, Clarke
  • Isle of Capri, Bettendorf, Scott
  • Grand Falls Casino, Larchwood, Lyon
  • Rhythm City, Davenport, Scott
  • Mystique, Dubuque, Dubuque
  • Diamond Jo Casino, Dubuque, Dubuque
  • Wild Rose Casino and Resort, Emmettsburg, Palo Alto
  • Catfish Bend, Burlington, Des Moines
  • Isle of Capri, Marquette, Clayton
  • Blackbird Bend Casino, Onawa, Monona
  • Wild Rose Casino and Resort, Clinton, Clinton
  • Riverside Casino & Golf Resort, Riverside, Washington
  • Meskwaki Casino, Toledo, Tama
  • WinnaVegas, Sloan, Woodbury
  • Argosy, Sioux City, Woodbury
  • Isle of Capri, Waterloo, Black Hawk

As you can see, there are quite a large number of casinos to choose from, with the biggest amount of choices being in the Pottawattamie County. However, you do have to understand that Iowa isn’t like Las Vegas or Reno. There are no full strips with casino upon casino. Nor are there the insane buildings that we know from popular culture. Don’t go to Iowa if you want to go to a casino that includes a boxing match and a concert by Celine Dion, for instance. However, those are the casinos for tourists. What Iowa has to offer is casinos the way casinos are supposed to be. They are reasonably large buildings with all the games you could possibly choose. There are slot machines, Black Jack tables, poker tables, roulette tables and crab games. Some casinos may even have closed off poker VIP rooms and even poker tournaments. 우리카지노

Most of the casinos are operated by Native Americans, who are known the world over for starting casinos all over the United States. This means that these are real, cultural and ethnic casinos, rather than the glitz and glamour you may have expected because you have seen various movies about what goes on in Vegas. This doesn’t make these casinos any less nice, however.

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Using 7 Casinos Strategies Like The Pros

There are various types of bonuses available at the different online casinos which often lead to misunderstandings, confusion and unnecessary stress if you do not understand what they are. I will try to briefly explain the different types of bonuses to you. Most importantly, you must READ CAREFULLY the term and condition when receiving the bonuses.

UFABET

No Deposit Bonus

This is the simplest of all the bonuses.All you need to do is register as a real player at the casino offering this bonus, and you will receive the money. You do not have to make a deposit to received it. some time it will be automatically credited to your account and sometime you will need to claim the bonus via email or submission form on their website.

There are usually some limitation on this bonus at different casinos. One of the limitation is the maximum amount of winning you may withdraw using this bonus. Also, some casinos may not have this cap, but would require you to make a token deposit before withdrawing your winning and other will give you a certain time frame, says 7 days, to claim your winning. Make sure you read their terms and conditions and make sure you understand the rule.

Match Bonus

This is a bonus you receive when you make a deposit at the casino. They will match your deposit with a certain percentage of your total deposit. For example; A casino offers you a 100% match bonus up to $200. This means that they will give you 100% in free money on any deposit amount you make up to $200. ie. You deposit $100 and you will receive another $100 in bonus money, making your bankroll $200 or you deposit $150, you will get an extra $150 which will then total up to $300. This bonus is usually used for new players who make their very first deposit at an online casino.

Fee Money Bonus

This is a first deposit bonus you will get regardless of the amount you deposit. An example would be if a casino offers you free $80 if you deposit at least $20. That will give you a bankroll of $100 to play with. But if you deposit $50, you still only get $80. Again, this is a mathematics thing. If you compare it to the match bonus of a different casino, you may find that by depositing the $20, you get more for your money. Here it would mean that you get 400%.

So, before you dismiss a casino that offers you a bonus which initially appear to be low, make sure you work out what would mean if you make the minimum deposit required.

Sticky Bonus

This is a bonus that a casino offers you to play with but you cannot withdraw the bonus amount. This basically means that you will receive free money to play with and once you reach the playthrough requirement, you can only withdraw any winnings that are over and above the initial bonus amount. The bonus money will be removed from your account when you make your withdrawal. These casinos are generally very generous with their bonuses because of this reason, so you can end up playing with a really massive bankroll. Some casinos will offer you up to $3000 in bonuses alone. This means that you can play at the games with the maximum coins and bets giving you a far better payout ratio when you hit the big wins.

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Maximizing a Student’s Understanding of Biostatistics Through the Review of Medical Research Studies

Introduction

In order to maximize understanding of biostatistics and its applications, a great practice for students is to review medical research studies. When reviewing medical research studies, it is important for students to recognize the type of study (randomized clinical trial, case control study, cohort study, or longitudinal study) employed and whether the study is retrospective or prospective. Understanding the type of research used and whether it is retrospective or prospective will aid a student in determining a study’s validity in an objective manner. This paper will briefly describe the preceding terms and then go on to applying these terms to five medical research study abstracts that I will describe in detail while pointing out each study’s potential strengths and weaknesses.

study in Germany

Types of Studies

There are four types of studies that can be used in the design of a medical research study, those being a randomized clinical trial, case control study, cohort study, and longitudinal study. A randomized clinical trial study is “a clinical study where volunteer participants with comparable characteristics are randomly assigned to different test groups to compare the efficacy of therapies” (Randomized Clinical Trial, 2011, para.1). A case control study is epidemiological study used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical illness by comparing those who have the disease or condition of interest (the cases) with those who do not have the disease or condition of interest (the controls). A cohort study is “a study in which subjects who presently have a certain condition and/or receive a particular treatment are followed over time and compared with another group who are not affected by the condition under investigation” (What is Cohort Research?, 2011, para.1). A longitudinal study is a study that follows patients over a prolonged period of time. Some sources also describe a longitudinal study as one in which the same patients are examined on two or more occasions.

A study can either be retrospective or prospective. Retrospective studies look backwards in time and examines exposures to suspected risk or protection factors in relation to an outcome that is established at the start of the study. In contrast, a prospective study looks forward in time and watches for outcomes, such as the development of a disease, during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor(s).

Research Study Abstract #1

The first medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “A Large Study of Long-Term Daily Use of Adult-Strength Aspirin and Cancer Incidence” by Eric J. Jacobs, Michael J. Thun, Elizabeth B. Bain, Carmen Rodriguez, S. Jane Henley, and Eugenia E. Calle.

This study shows evidence that aspirin use correlates with lowered risks of colon cancer and possibly several other cancers, including prostate and breast cancer. The study method examined associations between long-term daily use of adult strength aspirin (325 mg/day) measuring overall cancer incidence and incidence of 10 types of cancer among 69810 men and 76303 women. These men and women, who were relatively elderly, took part in the Cancer Prevention Study.

Since aspirin use was reported at enrollment in 1992-1993 and updated in 1997, 1999, and 2001, this is a cohort study. Individuals were already classified as groups at the beginning of the study into those who were taking 325 mg/day of aspirin and those who were not. The study is also retrospective in nature because it looked at survey data that was already provided by the American Cancer Society.

Results of the experiment showed that during a follow up in 2003, that Long-term (5 years) daily use of adult-strength aspirin, in comparison with no aspirin use, was associated with lower overall cancer rate in men (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76 to 0.93). Since the confidence interval does not include 1 and RR (rate ratios) for men was < 1, results are deemed statistically significant. A non-statistically significantly lower overall cancer rate was reported in women (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). Although the RR (rate ratios) for women was < 1, the confidence interval includes 1; results a deemed to be non-significant because variation can account for the observed correlation. Results also show that long-term daily aspirin use correlated with lower incidence that was statistically significant of colorectal cancer (RR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.52 to 0.90 among men and women combined) and prostate cancer prostate cancer (RR =0.81, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.94). Non-statistically significantly lower overall female breast cancer (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.10) was shown by the results.

Since this study is a retrospective cohort study, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths are that it is good for displaying multiple outcomes and is relatively inexpensive. Major weaknesses include that the investigator has little or no control over exposure and outcome, the temporal relationship is often difficult to determine, it requires large samples for rare outcomes, and the comparability between exposed and unexposed is difficult to achieve.

Research Study Abstract #2

The second medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Effects of Immediate Versus Delayed Pushing during Second-Stage Labor on Fetal Well-Being: A Randomized clinical trial” by Kathleen Rice Simpson and Dotti C. James.

This study shows evidence that it is more favorable for the well-being (in terms of fetal oxygen desaturation/saturation and variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate) of an infant for mothers at 10-cm cervical dilation to delay pushing until the woman feels the urge to push versus being coached to immediately start pushing at 10-cm cervical dilation. The study also shows that women who pushed immediately had more perineal lacerations. No differences were shown in the results between pushing and delayed pushing in length of labor, method of birth, Apgar scores, or umbilical cord blood gases.

Since women were randomly allocated to receive one or other of the alternative treatments under study (to push or delay pushing) this is a randomized clinical trial. It is also prospective in nature because it looked forward in time and watched for outcomes.

Results of the experiment showed significant difference between groups in fetal oxygen desaturation during the 10-cm cervical dilation (immediate: M = 12.5; delayed: M = 4.6) F (1, 43) = 12.24, p =.001, and in the number of >=2-min epochs of fetal oxygen saturation <30% (immediate: M = 7.9; delayed: M = 2.7), F (1, 43) =6.23, p =.02. There were more variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate in the immediate pushing group (immediate: M = 22.4; delayed: M = 15.6) F (1, 43) = 5.92, p =.02. Women who immediately at pushed 10-cm cervical dilation had more perineal lacerations (immediate: n = 13; delayed: n = 5) [chi] 2 (1, N = 45) = 6.54, p =.01. Assuming that the alpha is.05; the p-values fall well below the threshold and are deemed to be statistically significant; in other words, the null hypothesis is rejected in variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate, fetal oxygen saturation, and perinatal lacerations.