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Maximizing a Student’s Understanding of Biostatistics Through the Review of Medical Research Studies

Introduction

In order to maximize understanding of biostatistics and its applications, a great practice for students is to review medical research studies. When reviewing medical research studies, it is important for students to recognize the type of study (randomized clinical trial, case control study, cohort study, or longitudinal study) employed and whether the study is retrospective or prospective. Understanding the type of research used and whether it is retrospective or prospective will aid a student in determining a study’s validity in an objective manner. This paper will briefly describe the preceding terms and then go on to applying these terms to five medical research study abstracts that I will describe in detail while pointing out each study’s potential strengths and weaknesses.

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Types of Studies

There are four types of studies that can be used in the design of a medical research study, those being a randomized clinical trial, case control study, cohort study, and longitudinal study. A randomized clinical trial study is “a clinical study where volunteer participants with comparable characteristics are randomly assigned to different test groups to compare the efficacy of therapies” (Randomized Clinical Trial, 2011, para.1). A case control study is epidemiological study used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical illness by comparing those who have the disease or condition of interest (the cases) with those who do not have the disease or condition of interest (the controls). A cohort study is “a study in which subjects who presently have a certain condition and/or receive a particular treatment are followed over time and compared with another group who are not affected by the condition under investigation” (What is Cohort Research?, 2011, para.1). A longitudinal study is a study that follows patients over a prolonged period of time. Some sources also describe a longitudinal study as one in which the same patients are examined on two or more occasions.

A study can either be retrospective or prospective. Retrospective studies look backwards in time and examines exposures to suspected risk or protection factors in relation to an outcome that is established at the start of the study. In contrast, a prospective study looks forward in time and watches for outcomes, such as the development of a disease, during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor(s).

Research Study Abstract #1

The first medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “A Large Study of Long-Term Daily Use of Adult-Strength Aspirin and Cancer Incidence” by Eric J. Jacobs, Michael J. Thun, Elizabeth B. Bain, Carmen Rodriguez, S. Jane Henley, and Eugenia E. Calle.

This study shows evidence that aspirin use correlates with lowered risks of colon cancer and possibly several other cancers, including prostate and breast cancer. The study method examined associations between long-term daily use of adult strength aspirin (325 mg/day) measuring overall cancer incidence and incidence of 10 types of cancer among 69810 men and 76303 women. These men and women, who were relatively elderly, took part in the Cancer Prevention Study.

Since aspirin use was reported at enrollment in 1992-1993 and updated in 1997, 1999, and 2001, this is a cohort study. Individuals were already classified as groups at the beginning of the study into those who were taking 325 mg/day of aspirin and those who were not. The study is also retrospective in nature because it looked at survey data that was already provided by the American Cancer Society.

Results of the experiment showed that during a follow up in 2003, that Long-term (5 years) daily use of adult-strength aspirin, in comparison with no aspirin use, was associated with lower overall cancer rate in men (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76 to 0.93). Since the confidence interval does not include 1 and RR (rate ratios) for men was < 1, results are deemed statistically significant. A non-statistically significantly lower overall cancer rate was reported in women (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). Although the RR (rate ratios) for women was < 1, the confidence interval includes 1; results a deemed to be non-significant because variation can account for the observed correlation. Results also show that long-term daily aspirin use correlated with lower incidence that was statistically significant of colorectal cancer (RR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.52 to 0.90 among men and women combined) and prostate cancer prostate cancer (RR =0.81, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.94). Non-statistically significantly lower overall female breast cancer (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.10) was shown by the results.

Since this study is a retrospective cohort study, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths are that it is good for displaying multiple outcomes and is relatively inexpensive. Major weaknesses include that the investigator has little or no control over exposure and outcome, the temporal relationship is often difficult to determine, it requires large samples for rare outcomes, and the comparability between exposed and unexposed is difficult to achieve.

Research Study Abstract #2

The second medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Effects of Immediate Versus Delayed Pushing during Second-Stage Labor on Fetal Well-Being: A Randomized clinical trial” by Kathleen Rice Simpson and Dotti C. James.

This study shows evidence that it is more favorable for the well-being (in terms of fetal oxygen desaturation/saturation and variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate) of an infant for mothers at 10-cm cervical dilation to delay pushing until the woman feels the urge to push versus being coached to immediately start pushing at 10-cm cervical dilation. The study also shows that women who pushed immediately had more perineal lacerations. No differences were shown in the results between pushing and delayed pushing in length of labor, method of birth, Apgar scores, or umbilical cord blood gases.

Since women were randomly allocated to receive one or other of the alternative treatments under study (to push or delay pushing) this is a randomized clinical trial. It is also prospective in nature because it looked forward in time and watched for outcomes.

Results of the experiment showed significant difference between groups in fetal oxygen desaturation during the 10-cm cervical dilation (immediate: M = 12.5; delayed: M = 4.6) F (1, 43) = 12.24, p =.001, and in the number of >=2-min epochs of fetal oxygen saturation <30% (immediate: M = 7.9; delayed: M = 2.7), F (1, 43) =6.23, p =.02. There were more variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate in the immediate pushing group (immediate: M = 22.4; delayed: M = 15.6) F (1, 43) = 5.92, p =.02. Women who immediately at pushed 10-cm cervical dilation had more perineal lacerations (immediate: n = 13; delayed: n = 5) [chi] 2 (1, N = 45) = 6.54, p =.01. Assuming that the alpha is.05; the p-values fall well below the threshold and are deemed to be statistically significant; in other words, the null hypothesis is rejected in variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate, fetal oxygen saturation, and perinatal lacerations.

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The Hidden Mystery Behind Study

Who likes to study? I certainly never did. I love to learn, but the act of sitting down in front of a book was never easy for me. At some point I decided I wanted to get better at it and I decided to collect all the information and tips I could to improve my studying and get better grades. In this article I would like to share 5 habits that I developed to study better with you.

1. Maintain a good relationship with your teachers

I’m not talking about being a teacher’s pet (though there’s no harm in it), I’m talking about being able to talk with your teacher like two adults and discussing the material and upcoming tests. I’ve often gotten great tips from my teachers on what to study and what not to study just because I got along with them well. And even though teachers aren’t supposed to favour students that they like, they sometimes do which means they might cut you some slack when your answer on a test isn’t completely the right one.

2. Study small chunks in short sessions

Your brain can’t handle that much information at a time and it needs time to form long term memories. That’s why I always make a point of breaking the material up in to small chunks and studying them in short sessions. The duration of your studying makes less of a difference then the frequency of it. Small chunks make it easier to repeat learning the same information too. When you’re not studying, make sure you really take a break. Go and exercise a little for example. This helps you keep active which will help you study better. study in Germany

3. Study with others, too

Don’t do this all the time but it can really make a difference to get together with classmates every now and then to discuss the material. They might understand something that you don’t and vice versa. Also, explaining a subject to somebody really improves your understanding of that subject. Be careful not to get confused when a classmate has a different view on some of the material, go with what the book and your gut says.

4. Schedule your studying

As soon as you know a test is coming up, make a schedule of when you’re going to study for it. Don’t start too late with studying, you’ll just end up cramming the information in your head and you probably won’t remember much of it after the test. Making schedules is also important because often you’ll have multiple exams coming up which means you’ll have to plan well to study well for all of them.

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Mandatory Medical Insurance For Your Stay in the Schengen Area

Europe is a highly popular destination for tourists, especially because of the great cultural and geographical diversity it offers. But unless your native country has a visa waiver agreement with an European country, you will need a visa if you wish to visit Europe.

Schengen Visa Travel Insurance

Countries whose residents need the Schengen visa
Indeed, to travel to Europe, the residents of many countries must obtain a visa. This concerns most countries in Africa and Asia such as Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Cameroon, Nigeria, Senegal, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, China, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, but also Turkey, Russia, etc..

About the Schengen visa
Residents of these countries need a short stay visa to visit Europe. It is called “Schengen” because it allows you to travel freely between the different member states of the Schengen area for maximum ninety days. The Schengen area includes all European Union countries plus Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. However, Great Britain, Ireland, Romania, Bulgaria and Cyprus are excluded.

Additional condition to get the visa
Since December 2003, anyone wishing to obtain a Schengen visa must subscribe a medical insurance. If you wish to obtain a Schengen visa for France or for Belgium, for Switzerland… you should get insurance that offers certain coverage. No visa can be issued without it.

Useful information to get your visa
You need to make the visa application in person at the proper consulate (that is to say the consulate of the country you head for) in your country of residence. If you want to reapply for a visa, you will have to go back to your country.

The proper consulate is the one of the country where you stay the longest. If you stay in several countries and if you are not sure about which consulate you should get in touch with, the country where your plane landed is the one that will issue your visa.

You need an appointment with the consulate to get your Schengen visa.

A Schengen visa is valid in all Schengen states, unless the visa sticker states otherwise.

You will have to pay a fee to get a visa.

Insurance Schengen Europe Access has been designed specifically by Mondassur insurance broker to meet the needs of travellers coming to Europe with a Schengen visa. Mondassur broker specializes in travel insurance and thanks to the company’s experience offers this insurance plan at a cheap price.

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Important Facts Concerning Online Casino Slots

One of the most popular casino games on the internet is online casino slots. It is considered to be one of the more exciting games to play and is seen as a fantastic way to pass time as well as make a bit of money along the way if you are lucky. The benefits of playing slot games online are quite numerous. One of the main benefits that attracts a player to participate in slots online is the convenience factor of it. Playing slots in online casinos only involves a person to have access to computer and reliable connection to the internet. You can play the game from the comfort of your own house and do not need to spend money on travelling to land based casinos.

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Try out free slot games On the internet you will find a number of sites offering you the opportunity to play online slots for absolutely free. This is a great option as you can try out the slot games without having to spend any money and also learn how to play the game. As a result you will be in a stronger to position to decide if you want to go ahead and gamble with real money.

Playing online slots You might think that playing a game of online slots is complicated but in actual fact it is not and can be played by a complete beginner. However, if you have never played before it is advisable to try the game for free first and then once you have a bit of experience then consider using real money. Most online casino sites will provide you with instructions on how to play the game. The interfaces are generally very easy to use and the majority of the games follow the same basic rules of traditional slots games. The main aim of the game is to spin the reels and hope that they stop on the winning symbols which will result in you earning rewards. When playing online you will use the mouse or keyboard to trigger the spins.

What are the odds of winning the game? Slots purely rely on luck rather than skill. Whether you win or lose depends on how lucky you are. The result of every spin is already randomly decided by a machine/computer through a random number generator device installed therefore everyone’s odds of winning in a slot machine game are exactly the same. It doesn’t make a difference what time of day you play, who plays or where you play as the odds of winning will remain identical for all players.

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Online Casino Guide

If you are a person who has an ample interest in casino and are about to try your luck at any casino table, you will require a Casino Guide in order to comprehend the language that is accepted round the table. This language is accepted throughout the world in almost all casinos. Knowing these language will not only increase your confidence but will also prove you as a pro even though you are a first time visitor of casino table. Without knowing these certain terms you will never be able to know that the amount of money that you are investing in the game is termed as Bankroll among the casino goers.

A good casino guide is really important for the first time casino goers. The new casino players also can take the guide of these guides as knowing the terms will only make them mature. The next time you hear the 안전공원 word Bluff in the Poker table do not get confused for that is to term a player who is trying to drive the other players out of the game worthlessly.

Call the card you remove from the deck before dealing a card in the community cards a Burn Card. Never get frustrated if you are winning Comps during your initial visits to casinos as this means a complementary gift that is delivered to the players. You can also receive comp points in case you are willing to play more on the casino.

The terms mentioned in the casino table forms a different language, a very own language of the casino maniacs. In order to prove you as good as well as practiced casino goers, only winning luck is not enough. It is all fun and you should try to look smarter as you play.

A casino guide of the terms will help you a lot. It is better for you to invest in even money as that signifies a bet that promises to pay you back the same money you gamble. The Jack, the Queen and the King are called as Face Cards in the deck of cards. In old casinos you may meet a High Roller. A High Roller is a player who wins as well as loses big though betting a bit. Do not call the money you wager an investment but a Bankroll for that is the proper term for it.

Though there are different terms applicable to different games of casino, a casino guide is always a good help. It is always useful that you refer a glossary meant for casino games whether you go playing poker or try your luck through slot machines. Being a favorite game of gambling throughout the world, almost equal terms are used in all casinos in every corners of the world. In this way, knowing the terms properly, you can communicate with persons representing all the countries through the casino table.

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6 Great Reasons Why You Should Aspire To Be An Online Casino VIP

Needless to say, if you really want to get the most out of online casinos, become a VIP and take pleasure from these great benefits.

Exclusive promotions
VIPs enjoy exclusive promotions characterized by their huge rewards and prizes. This is one of the greatest perks that VIPs can take advantage. Other than the great deals, the mere fact that this is not open to the public increases their winning chances. They do not have to compete heavily with other members or if they have to compete, still, this is not as tough as with ordinary promotions.

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Special bonuses
VIPs also receive special bonuses. Take for example the birthday bonus-this is one of the many special rewards that VIPs can receive. There are even instances wherein these players are rewarded for moving to a much higher VIP level. Again, similar to the promotions that they enjoy, these bonuses are solely made for them.

Special tournaments
Tournaments add more action to online casinos. They give variety to the usual and ordinary gaming activity. They make the games more exciting and challenging. Thus, it is not surprising to see a huge number of players participating in online casino tournaments. VIPs however, have an edge for they enjoy many of these. Here they can compete with other online casino members from different parts of the world. They have the privilege to test their skills and expertise. Now there are tournaments where players need to pay a fee. But oftentimes, VIPs have free access to these events.

High table limits
Table limits are observed in every online casino player. Some find this set-up a bit frustrating and disappointing. Their concern is understandable. Usually in online casinos, the higher your bet, the higher are your winnings too. But then again, if you are VIP, you do not have to worry about the limited bets that you can place. Immediately, upon entering a VIP program, your table limits are increased.

Higher cashback
Similar to the table limits, the cashback that you get as a VIP is bigger. A large percentage of your funds is returned to you. If this is the case, evidently, this means that you never have to worry about fund shortage.

Higher comp points conversion
Each time VIP members play, they receive comp points, which they can exchange for real money. Since they are VIPs, they have higher conversions compared to other players. This is one of the easiest rewards that one can attain from online casinos. Literally, the high comp points conversion does not require the player to lift a finger. All they have to do is to play-this simple act alone is already rewarded.

As discussed, there are plenty of privileges and benefits that you can enjoy. If you have been playing in an online casino for quite some time now, it is best to ask them if you qualify as one of their VIPs. It is a given fact that online casinos give bigger and better prizes compared to its land-based counterparts and you can take advantage of it now via becoming a VIP.

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Overview of Casino Share

General Overview
Casino Share is one of the biggest and most popular online casinos, definitely one of the veterans of the online casino industry. The casino launched operations in August 1997 and has since then registered over 120,000 customers. The casino is licensed and regulated by the Lotteries and Gaming Authority of Malta and operated by Peak Entertainment.

The number of awards that this casino has won over the years is an indication of just how 먹튀검증 good this place has been; all you have to do is check the Awards link at the casino for a list of awards that it has won so far. Unfortunately, it does not accept players from the US.

Casino Share uses the latest technology to provide a secure gaming environment and ensure your personal details and transactions are secure. The casino also ensures fair gaming and uses an independently audited random number generator. Another area where the casino rates high is customer support. Its dedicated customer support team is available 24×7 over telephone, e-mail, and also live chat. There is also a detailed FAQ available at the casino that you can refer to before contacting customer support.

Software and Games
This casino runs on software developed by Cryptologic, one of the best in terms of online gambling software development. The software provides the casino with cutting edge features like 3-d graphics and digital sound, multi-player gaming, real-time chat, easy upgrades, and multi-platform support.

At Casino Share, you can choose from a range of games – card games (blackjack, baccarat, poker, Pontoon, Solitaire, Super Fun 21, and Casino War), table games (craps and roulette), slots (single-line slots, multi-line slots, and video slots), video poker, and specialty games (Keno, Scratch Card, Break the Bank). There are also a range of progressive jackpots at the casino.

You do have the option of playing in a private room and also taking part in various tournaments organized at the casino.

Bonuses
The bonuses at Casino Share include a match deposit bonus of 100% up to $100 on your first deposit. Other bonuses available at the casino include a $100 Slots Player bonus, a $100 loyalty bonus, a $50 Refer a Friend bonus, and also access to the comp program at the casino, the much-talked about Peak Rewards, which gives you the chance to earn free cash each time you play at the casino.

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Finding The Best Casino Bonuses Online

One of the greatest reasons why people love to play in an online casino is because of the best casino bonus they will gain especially for the first time gamblers who wanted to try out the gambling experience of playing online. However, bonuses are also one of the biggest sources of confusions for players.

That is why you have to look the most trusted online casino before you make any deposit and carefully read the wagering requirements and the terms and conditions. One of the 카지노사이트 reason why online casino created lots of bonuses option to all casino players is because there are so many competition that they want to attract the first time players and even the professional ones to play with them as they are giving away a huge casino bonuses.

Back then, some top online casinos do no impose any wagering requirements, you can get the bonus for free and automatically added to your casino account. But some bonus hunters and abusive casino players are going to make a multiple accounts and claiming the bonus and later one they gonna withdraw without playing in any casino games.

As a result, online casino strictly implemented the wagering requirements for every bonuses you can claim to prevent the bonus hunter and for players to play with them. As wagering requirement is now the important deal when claiming the bonuses. For you to understand how the bonuses work, let’s cite some example; if you have $100 bonus of a $100 deposit you make and with a 20X wagering requirement, you have to bet for a bout $2,000 before you can withdraw.

Moreover, there are so many online casino sites that you can get various of casino bonuses from. This is certainly an advantage and allows you to look through many different options and choose the best ones to you:

  • Welcome Bonuses or Sign Up Bonus- Offered to all new casino players when they join.
  • No Deposit – These require no deposit or buying chips online.
  • FREE Play – These give you a set amount of time to win.
  • Monthly Deals – Available to all casino players to claim once a month.
  • Exclusive Offers – Only available for regular casino players.

When estimating a casino bonus offer there are several things to consider. You have read carefully and understand the terms and conditions and the wagering requirement before taking the advantage of the bonus. Most top online casinos stated their rules clearly for the players to understand it easily.

More importantly, if you want to play any casino games you like and you want to withdraw your winning money anytime, you don’t have to claim the bonuses. Because once you claim the bonuses without a knowing the wagering requirement, you can’t withdraw your winning right away because you must meet the wagering requirement before you can withdraw.

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Casino Is Your Worst Enemy. 9 Ways To Defeat It

Mention of the word ‘casino’ conjures images of risk and great risk taking in many peoples’ minds. Indeed, there are people who would very much like to participate in the various games that casinos offer to the patrons, but who are put off by the risk inherent in so doing.

Introduction to No Deposit Casinos

Typical online casinos, for instance, usually require the patrons to deposit a given amount of money (referred to in most circles as the ‘playing deposits’) – Satta from which the casinos are then able to pay the winnings to the lucky players, finance their operations (staff costs, web hosting costs in the case of online casino, and so son), and also to make a profit for their creators, the ‘house owners,’ as it were.

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The way no deposits casinos work, on the other hand, however is through a system where the players don’t have to deposit any money with the ‘house’ to start playing. Some actually take the no deposit philosophy to another level, where they Matka integrate it with the increasingly popular ‘casino bonus’ system – to come up with what can be termed as a no deposit casino bonus system, in which players have a real chance to get real money out of their playing without having to put anything (besides their effort and time really) into the ‘house.’

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The no deposit casino system is not game specific, and most of the no deposit casinos actually offer the whole range of games offered in the other typical casinos that demand deposits off their members, the games in question being anything from roulette to slots, blackjack and poker.

Most no deposit casinos, as indeed all types of casinos, typically don’t allow admission to minors (people under the age of 18), generally for legal reasons.

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To be sure, though, the no deposit casino bonus system tends to come with a few catches here and there, and it is important to read and understand the casinos terms and conditions carefully before getting in. For the most part, for instance, Satta Matka no deposit casinos will tend to put a limit to the amount of no deposit bonuses they allow – with some limiting it at as low amounts as $10. However low the amount that the no deposit casino bonus is, though, it is still ‘something for nothing’ and an opportunity to get something for free from the ‘house’ – and that, of itself, is an attractive option.

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Someone might ask what the business logic of offering the no deposit casino options is, especially keeping in mind that the casinos are definitely not charities – but highly strategic businesses. The answer to the question of how the Matka zero deposit casinos make their money lies in the understanding of the workings of ‘free samples’ marketing philosophy, where a company that is highly confident about its products offers some free samples to prospective buyers. So in a way of speaking, the no deposit casino bonus are the casino’s version of ‘free samples’ which, should the player get impressed with them, is expected to spur them to register with the casino, and thereby offer the casino the opportunity to make some money, while also giving the player the chance to earn even more money from the casino – depending on their skill and luck.

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What Does it Take to Become a Video Game Designer

With love of video games and a passion to create something new, you can easily become a video game designer. However, just passion and love do not fulfill the entire requirements; you also need to have a professional video game design degree to get things started. It’s not a tough journey once you are into it; and it offers very attractive job careers. Here are some simple steps that can help you become a professional video game designer.

Things You Need To Do For Becoming a Video Game Designer

o A video game design degree is the basic necessity for this particular career, if you really want to take it to a higher level. Otherwise, you can also learn all the required video game designer courses on you own and work on your own projects but that will not help you in making a good name or working with big companies. You can get an online video game design degree very easily if you don’t want to attend any university campus classes as it is easier to study online than attending campus studies.

o Sharpen your mathematical skills. You need to be good at solving problems because while designing a video game, you will come across several bugs and other such issues.

o Make a list of all the accredited universities that are offering online video game design degree but make sure that their degree are widely accepted. Some of the universities offer degrees that are not acceptable in several other parts, which is troublesome for your career.

o Apply for video game design degree before the final date of submission and request all kind of details from the university. It will make it easier for you to decide which university would be better for you.

o Complete your graduation and keep practicing in the meantime to polish your skills as much as you can. Moreover, also look for an internship during your graduation because most of the companies do not hire any fresh graduate without experience. The more experienced you are, the more would be the job opportunities for you.

Once you become a professional video game designer, it would be easier for you to keep enhancing your skills with the time. This is a profession where you require more creative ideas and extra-ordinary presentations to amuse your buyers. It does take a little time for the establishment but it sure is a very promising career.